For People of Color, Barriers to Biking Go Far Beyond Infrastructure, Study Shows

A survey of Black and Latino residents in New Jersey reveals barriers to biking that are not discussed very often by bike-promotion pros. Photo: New Jersey Bicycle and Pedestrian Resource Center.
A survey of Black and Latino residents in New Jersey reveals barriers to biking that are not discussed very often by bike-promotion pros. Photo: New Jersey Bicycle and Pedestrian Resource Center.

New research from New Jersey shows huge gaps in the conventional wisdom about how to make biking useful to more people.

It’s one of the most rigorous explorations of the fact that the assumptions and practices of biking advocacy have been disproportionately shaped by the white and the well-to-do.

When most cities try to make biking a bigger part of their transportation systems, they use a standard checklist: comfortable biking networks, how-to-ride classes, traffic-law enforcement. The full list is sometimes called the “Five E’s.”

A first-of-its-kind survey conducted by Rutgers academics Charles Brown and James Sinclair shows that when you look at biking from the perspective of a Black or Latino American, the Five E’s are missing a lot.

Our colleague Stefani Cox of collaborated with Brown to break down the findings in a four-part series:

Some aspects of biking, of course, are pretty universal. The single biggest obstacle to biking among Black and Latino New Jerseyans surveyed was fear of a traffic collision. Infrastructure like bike lanes, off-street paths, and bike parking were overwhelmingly popular among those surveyed.

desired infrastructure

But as Brown and Sinclair also found, more than half of the people of color surveyed didn’t think their government would add bike infrastructure to their communities if it was requested — and people of color reported less satisfaction with bike infrastructure in their area than people who identified as white alone.

existing infrastructure rating

Moreover, people of color report barriers to biking that are discussed far less often by bike-promotion pros. After fear of traffic collision, the most common was “fear of robbery/assault,” with 30 percent listing this as a barrier. Another 20 percent listed the related “fear of being stranded,” enough for it to rank fourth.

ranking of barriers

Then there’s racial profiling, the common but unconstitutional practice of police confronting people of color at higher rates than white people. Though calls for “more traffic enforcement” have often surfaced in white-dominated biking advocacy, the issue may look different to people of color, many of whom told Brown and Sinclair that fear of being profiled by the police is a barrier to their getting on a bike.

fear of profiling

This barrier looms especially large for Black and Latino men, one in five of whom reported that they personally had been unfairly stopped by police.

This finding echoes multiple studies suggesting that bike-related laws are enforced overwhelmingly on people of color, sometimes with violent consequences.

Cox and Brown’s series digs deeper into each of these issues and starts to explore solutions, including the relevance for people who work in bike sharing — an amenity that 85 percent of respondents of color said they were interested in but only 57 percent said they’d been aware of.

“Everything here is exciting,” said Brown. “No one has done a study that pays this much attention to this population.”

Check it out.

PlacesForBikes is a PeopleForBikes program to help U.S. communities build better biking, faster. You can follow them on Twitter or Facebook or sign up for their weekly news digest about building all-ages biking networks.

43 thoughts on For People of Color, Barriers to Biking Go Far Beyond Infrastructure, Study Shows

  1. I’m glad for this research. I’d like comparisons of the survey results to non-Black, non-Latino groups, to see if and how the concerns/fears/etc. differ.

    Moreover, fear of being stranded wasn’t explored — at least not in what I read (and I did follow several links). I can imagine it would be greater for Blacks and Latinos going through White neighborhoods (think Michael Griffith chased to his death in Howard Beach, NY in 1986). It would be helpful to know how much greater.

    Bottom line: this is good stuff, I hope it goes deeper.

  2. I don’t think it’s helpful to play a race card here. Cycling isn’t a race-dependent thing but we all know that cycling is almost all an Anglo-Asian thing. But that’s a cultural thing more than anything else and looking for conspiracy theories here isn’t helpful.

  3. If 70% of jaywalking is done by blacks and 60% of jaywalking tickets are given to blacks, then if anything it’s not racist at all but quite the opposite.

  4. Your statement is a classic example of the reason racism persists in our society: (presumably well-meaning) people saying don’t talk about it. It doesn’t exist. It’s just culture. Look away.

    This piece literally points about racial profiling and you say, don’t talk about race. W T F.

  5. “If 70% of jaywalking is done by blacks and 60% of jaywalking tickets are given to blacks, ”

    Where do you get this from?

    I think I was mistaken in my earlier post above assuming you were well-meaning. You’re an apologist for racism.

  6. psst: I assume you are speaking with a ‘RichLL’ or a ‘bobfuss’. He is a Jedi master at steering conversations into frustrating obtuse tail chasing. We all have blocked ‘it’ some time ago…..

  7. “After fear of traffic collision, the most common was “fear of robbery/assault,” with 30 percent listing this as a barrier. Another 20 percent listed the related “fear of being stranded.”

    As for fear of being stranded, perhaps non-Whites are less likely to have a car-owning relative available to come get them when they get a flat. What do I do when I get a flat? Haul the bike down to the subway, and carry it back up again, and go to the nearest bike shop. But there is a good chance that poor, minority neighborhoods outside NYC have neither subways or bike shops.

    Roving bike repair would probably help here. In Chicago, they are trying to train people from poor, minority neighborhoods to fix bikes as a skill. That would probably help elsewhere.

  8. Excellent, Streetsblog! This was one of my points yesterday -we can’t even go to complain about bike overenforcement, since the community council meetings are held *inside* a police precinct. Why would anyone want to go into a tiger cage to discuss tiger aggression??

  9. But surely it is only profiling if the rate at which a given race is stopped, ticketed or arrested exceeds their participation rate in that crime?

    So for example, if 50% of jaywalkers are Asian, but 60% of tickets issued are for Asians, there’s a problem. Reverse those numbers and there is not.

  10. He didn’t say those were the numbers. He said “IF they are the numbers”

    In other words, if we’re going to talk about profiling, be sure you understand the breakdown of crime by race first.

  11. First, in the absence of evidence that people of different races are breaking the law at different rates, I think the burden of proof for that should be the person making such a claim.

    And, please don’t use police statistics for that “evidence” since we’ve seen myriad examples of such bias.

    Moreover, even if it is true that, say, black people in a particular region jaywalk at higher rates than white people, racism might well be a factor in that. For example, if they tend to live in a place with terrible urban infrastructure, due to redlining and other racist policies of the past, and it’s simply hard to get around without jaywalking, then the situation is affected by race. It might not mean the police are racist, but race is part of the context. We see that in my city, where police are targeting e-bikes. Most bikes users are Latino and Asian. They are also poor and recent immigrants. And they are easy targets for police. Race affects who is breaking the law, and the police, in choosing to go for the easy tickets that these people represent, are enforcing a law that affects those people of color in a disproportionate way. The policy decision to target bikes has racist implications. There are lots of other equally un-dangerous things that are illegal but that wealthier or whiter people do a lot, but guess what, the police ignore them.

    Lastly, in a country in which historically police have been disproportionately abusive toward people of color, even if the police in a particular place are operating in an excellent manner today, it’s completely understandable for people of color to still be afraid. And, as a consequence, if we care about promoting cycling among all people (a big “if” in your case, I imagine) then it’s worth talking/thinking about race and racism.

    But I doubt you care about this. Your main point is that we shouldn’t talk about race. And you know what: that’s pretty racist.

  12. I’m black and grew up in a decent bubble from racism as a teenager (or was unaware. And in high school I rode my bike from NYC to Cape Cod (over a couple of days) solo, and also did a bike tour with three white friends, all female, from Hartford to Cape Cod. My father, a black man, was convinced these were very dangerous trips. I don’t know if he was “right” objectively, but his opinion was certainly based in historical context that still affects us.

  13. I think both can be true. It may be that blacks commit more crime but there are valid historical reason for that which may indicate racism. Even so, that doesn’t make arresting them for committing those crimes racism.

    Likewise, it’s a cheap trick to accuse of racism anyone who questions an allegation of racism. That rather implies that anyone who makes an allegation of racism is protected from criticism and scrutiny, because to ask searching questions about that claim immediately runs the risk of being labelled a “racist”. The assumption there is that 100% of claims of racism are valid.

    50% of the prison population are black – four times their representation in the general population. If 50% of arrests for serious crimes are of black people then that isn’t necessarily a case of racism, even if the historic reasons for that statistic are. What I think is not helpful is blindly yelling the word “racism” every time a demographic skews away from a statistical mean. That’s sloppy thinking.

  14. And poor neighborhoods, even in New York City, tend to be transit poor. What if your neighborhood doesn’t have a subway station? Buses don’t have bike racks.

  15. So, where do Asians fit in this Black/Latino/White scheme? Race also isn’t just about black and white, and Asians may face issues different from either.

  16. They don’t in New York? Every bus in Chicago has racks and you can bring a bike on the EL outside of rush hour.

  17. Great point! At least one of the policing studies linked above involved a lot of Asian-descended folks, I think, but you’re right that they weren’t a focus of this work in NJ. I’m sure some barriers are widely shared and others are not.

  18. As a bike/ped professional in a majority minority city I can tell you this doesn’t paint the complete picture. Some of the most vocal opposition to bike infrastructure comes from the black community, and other cities have seen this as well (PFB has reported on it). It is seen as gentrification. I’ve been told (by black colleagues) “black people don’t bike”. And that they can understand if we installed bike lanes in some other neighborhood (typically a predominantly white neighborhood), but not “here” (black neighborhood).

    Riding a bike is seen as indicative of being low income, which is reflected in the stats in this article (higher biking out of necessity). That is also something that works against acceptance of biking for utility. It’s seen as for poor people, especially in already marginalized communities. The bottom line is that there are a lot of issue to overcome and it isn’t as simple as withholding better infrastructure or access in minority communities.

  19. Same set of talking points across a variety of topics, same pattern of argumentation, same distinctive phrases.

    The sock-puppeting of defending his own derailing under another name is a new low. I guess he’s given up on pretending that his new practice of changing accounts all the time is just a perfectly innocent way of avoiding “stalking” (which is his term for someone regularly pointing out how bad his arguments are).

  20. I am sure you are right that this doesn’t paint the whole picture – there are lots of other barriers Brown and Sinclair could have asked about too but didn’t. And I do think a lot of folks have attitudes like you describe. Is this the past coverage you’re remembering?

    But of course there are also lots of white folks (and folks of all ethnicities) who mount similar arguments against bike lanes in their own neighborhoods too. Seems to me that the single biggest demographic predictor of whether I (a) support bike lanes or (b) feel that bike lanes are for good people like me is not my race, whatever that may be, but whether I personally ride a bike around town.

    Bike boosters and users of all races need to team up with each other whenever we can, and I hope this research may help us better understand one another.

  21. Ever since I got Schwalbe Marathon Plus tires, I have never got a flat. This is a problem that is easily solvable by cheap technology.

  22. Komanof, while the initial paper did not compare the results with white and asian groups, it is being modified to do so, based on requests such as yours.

    Additionally, the focus groups did find that the black and hispanic participants refused to travel through certain municipalities.

  23. Unfortunately the scope of the project (ie:funds) did not allow for the gathering of a representative amount of data from Asian groups.

  24. The focus groups asked pointed question about gentrification concerns. At least in central new jersey, it wasn’t an issue. But we know it has been a huge issue in Washington DC.

  25. there could also be a reasonable fear that “being stranded” if one is a black or brown male, immediately turns one into a suspect in many parts of this country.
    It isn’t just about income and wealth and how many friends will pick you up in their car.
    It is also about very real, and persistent racism.

  26. You can bring your bike on the NYC subway at any time. At rush hour, it sucks, for you and everyone else. So one rarely sees it. But there is not prohibition.
    The point being made is that in many of NYC’s poorest neighborhoods there is no subway.
    And no, the buses have no racks.

  27. Michael, agreed, and making those inroads across demographic lines is happening here, slowly. But there are some real (and very odd) barriers that we encounter at times. There has been thinly veiled hostility and playing of the race card and we are accused of being interlopers disrupting the community for the benefit of white people, despite the significant bike use by minorities, and despite the fact that 1 in 5 households don’t have access to a car.

    Much of it relates back to the all too common perception in America that biking is recreation (toy bike syndrome). In fact we repeatedly talk about the bike lanes / infrastructure being about utility cycling and they continue to harp on their perception that we are inconveniencing them so that people can bike for recreational. No matter how many times we say it, present the facts, etc, some are wedded to their perception. And perception = reality. Breaking those barriers can be tough, even when it provides a benefit to the community.

  28. The thing is these barriers aren’t insurmountable. And many are of perception, not actual, real hard barriers. I started biking — I am white — living in a neighborhood that was probably 95% to 99% African-American, with all those issues but in the obverse (crime, fear of safety, murder rate, lack of infrastructure, etc.) I experienced plenty of public safety and harassment issues as a result (including muggings).

    I decided to bike regardless of those issues (I was then 30 years old) because biking was a lot more time and cost efficient compared to reliance on transit. I still don’t see how infrastructure, safety are particularly white or black, living in or near majority minority neighborhoods in Washington DC for almost all of the almost 30 years I’ve lived in the city.

    Maybe I am just blind to white privilege, but having started biking for transportation in 1990 long before it was trendy, I have a hard time with a lot of these arguments, other than access to bikes and difficulties storing bikes at home in a safe manner. (But I have solutions for those issues, see:

  29. there is a huge increase in mobile bike repair through franchises, one being VeloFix. But it’s not much of an issue. Yes, it happens (has happened to me), and it sucks, but likely most people who are biking are doing so in a city in striking distance of transit and most city bus systems accommodate bikes. I’ve missed a couple meetings because of unexpected flat tires, sure.

  30. To “understand the breakdown of crime by race first” you have to consider some rudimentary facts that have been consistently observed in the field of criminology for decades. Which would not lead to the stupid “IF” question that he posed.

  31. I’ve seen his comments all over Disqus sites, he’s not well-meaning. The most charitable possible explanation of anyone who’d hoark up the phrase “race card” in a comment on a study about race is that he’s terminally obtuse.

  32. Yes. He was posting as Todd for a while and doing a pretty good job of disguising his writing style. But he was unable to maintain the pretense and gave himself away. Once I pointed out that he was in fact RichLL, he changed the Todd into Timpson, and continued also to post under other identities, such as Ringo, AlTate, and recently, Susan.

    It’s kinda sickly funny the way he backs up his bobfuss posts with his Timpson identity.

    He was openly racist as RichLL, posting: “Sometimes you can just tell. The other day I’m on the F and a black dude gets on the off door, looking furtive, and sits in the back.”

    He is disgusting in so many ways: I think it is best just to block him in all his guises.

  33. You are in agreement. You are both agreeing that the police are not necessarily racist, but the contextual situation might unfairly discriminate.

    In my mind, America’s problem is increasingly shifting to “those people,” who happen to be Black, Lower Income, Latino, or any other thing that might be considered discrimination.

    This article’s description of problems sound like something the Dutch would call “Social Safety.” They have long recognized that it does not matter how unlikely a serious collision with a motor vehicle is or the time efficiency of the infrastructure if people are afraid of being harassed, or mugged, or shot, etc.

  34. Gentrification would be a concern, but as I recall, the neighborhoods receiving bike infrastructure tend to be wealthier to begin with, and this means that Black neighborhoods, which due to the legacy of past policies tend to be poorer neighborhoods, have generally had less exposure to it, and since it involves changing the status quo, and has had less precedent in their minds, it is perhaps less surprising that they would be more resistant to it. 15 years ago, people are much more resistant to bike infrastructure than now in the same neighborhoods which received bike infrastructure, largely because it was unfamiliar, and people were afraid of it. Black neighborhoods generally have had less development since the push for better bike infrastructure began, so they are in effect suspended in the past in terms of how they feel about it for the reasons it was hard to install bike infrastructure when they first began.

  35. Actually, it is playing the race card. Pretending that there’s a discrepancy is what is racist. Just act THE SAME as whites do when you ride and you will be more likely to be treated the same. The more bossy, nosy, paranoid, or controlling you act, the worse treatment you will get. If you choose to act different than white cyclists, then don’t cry “racism” when you are treated as less than human. If you act aggressive, force help on others, bully others, or act the least bit intimidating or “hard” instead of quietly minding your own business, staying in your own world, and never speaking to or engaging strangers as you travel (especially if they are outside your ethnic group), then you’re inviting trouble.

    As a white cyclist, I have to put up with black drivers treating me like I’m stupid, demanding to help me, and refusing to let me, in the slowest vehicle, go last. If the fast vehicle hurries up and goes first, then the cyclist can freely take as long as they want without inconveniencing the car. I don’t know why black drivers constantly refuse the help I give them by me being patient and waiting for THEM to hurry up, ignore me, finish what they’re doing, and let me go last without helping me or waiting on me in the least. All you have to do is assume the best in white cyclists and never assume that we need your help. Just let us have our FULL risk without you trying to baby us or dilute our experience. If you see a white cyclist waiting, it is ALWAYS to get to go last WITHOUT assistance. So many black drivers I experience act like they own me like a slave or something and have this filthy, arrogant, uppity need to condescend to me and assume they need my permission to go, all while they refuse to accept my help out of THEIR racist need and the chip on their shoulder that causes them to constantly control other people. I mean, if I get somewhere last and you are almost ready to turn, just finish your damn turn. And don’t do stupid stuff like force me to pass and then pass me back when you could have went sooner without changing a goddamn thing for me at all (or even acting like you noticed me). If you can’t drive in an impersonal, logical-only mode without the sick need to “socialize” all the time, then you don’t need to be on the road.

    Too many black drivers go to a stupid place within when they see cyclists and assume they have to condescend to us, help us, baby us, and feel sorry for us. They should learn to ignore all that filthy extra data and treat cyclists the same as other drivers. As for the “yield” argument, that only means if they are moving and there is a chance of collision. The law doesn’t say you can’t go first if a cyclist is parked and not moving. If it takes more than 8 seconds for them to go, then just go, not pretend they are holding you up, when you are wasting their time and your own by trying to get them to go when they clearly want to go last.

  36. Most of the “fears” on the list are unfounded, or they are created because of black culture being unnecessarily different. You cannot create a culture that is different from white people as a f–k you to them and then expect them to respect you the same. For instance, black folks have more fear of robbery, theft, or assault because they are more likely to live among other black or low-income folks who choose to make it unsafe for them. That is not a white problem or a government problem, but a failure of black parents to teach their kids to NEVER rob or assault NO MATTER WHAT and to permanently disown them if they do. They made their bed and should shut up and lie in it, or fix the problems they created. You know, if assaults are a problem, then what if a group of black men were stationed near that spot and gave ass-whoopins to whoever assaults any cyclists there? They would-be attackers would then think twice before trying that. At the least, do your riding in groups or at least bring your spouse with you.

    Comparing the middle of the chart to the last shows that the fears are not as valid as perceived, since getting off one’s ass and riding a bike is a sure way to reduce a lot of the fears. Cowardice and lack of experience are the biggest obstacles here. So push past the fear and ride anyway! If you experience obstacles, then go raise hell with the city, speak up at City Hall or at the County Commission, contact your human relations commission, hire a lawyer, etc.

    Now, as an experienced cyclist, I will deconstruct each remaining objection.

    * FEAR OF COLLISION — This is mostly unfounded. It is a common and known, inherent risk. White cyclists are aware of this too, but they welcome this risk without making a big deal out of it. The chance of danger and the chance to use my brain to get myself out of jams MYSELF without help is what motivates me and makes things fun and adventurous. It is the self-appointed “helpful” people who are generally of a lower social class than me (and often minorities), who tend to steal my pleasure and make my biking experience pure hell. I once had to put up with a transphobe who deliberately tried to hit me as part of a hate crime. I used my brain and gut instincts to know he was gunning for me. So I moved lanes and he went to the wrong side of the road with me. And he’d occasionally pop it in neutral and rev the engine, trying to intimidate. So I deliberately wrecked myself onto a hill. He still hit the bike, but I wasn’t on it. Then I got a passerby to call the cops who got the guy who lived at the top of the nearby hill, and the crime lab came out and they found part of his grill where the impact occurred.

    Creating more bike infrastructure actually makes the problem worse much of the time. Bike lanes decrease safety and respect from drivers, since they believe then that if you don’t use a bike lane or there is none in a given spot, then you are fair game to be hit for being stupid enough to ride in the street where you are supposed to ride (not on sidewalks or the shoulder). Creating a bike lane to the right of traffic on the same road creates a hazard when bikes go straight and cars turn right. It is the paranoia from drivers that is created by well-meaning left-wing “journalists” who lead off with their stupid feelings and go on and on about some stupid idiot getting killed and making drivers scared of cyclists that create a hazard. The journalists instead should put more of the onus on the cyclists and remind drivers to treat cyclists the SAME as other drivers and not be afraid of them or feel compelled to baby them.

    Like if I stop to let a driver out of a parking lot, so many make the mistake of backing up to let me go rather than ignoring me and letting me wait my turn and go last, unassisted. They don’t know why I stopped, and it is arrogant to assume I want to go, or are even ABLE to go. I could be out of breath, tired, or have something in my eye. But if they back up, they could hit a pedestrian. I mean, if they are leaving a fast food joint, then someone might be walking into the lobby and assume that the driver will not back up, and they could get hit by the stupid driver who felt sorry for the cyclist and thought the cyclist was too stupid to wait their turn and get to go last. It doesn’t matter if it is hot, raining, dark, or what, just let them go last no matter what sick things you feel. They know what is best for them, not you.

    Or consider if I am in in the right lane on a 4-lane street, and the driver crosses the double-yellow line to go around me, instead of passing me in the next lane like they would if I were a car. When I see stupid stuff like that, I am tempted to pray that they get hit for being so damn stupid and not treating me the same as other drivers. But I don’t actually wish that because the other driver in such a car on car collision would be completely innocent. Likewise, if a cyclist is on a sidewalk, then it would be stupid for a driver to cross the center line for me when I am nowhere near them. It is unnecessary and endangers them and whoever is on the other side. So controlling, bossy, or overly “friendly” drivers make biking more dangerous and create hazards for pedestrians and other drivers.

    * PAVEMENT — Yes, the pavement is pretty bad in places. Most white folks know how to vary their route to avoid it or learn to ride with that there without needing to complain. Yes, I’ve ridden on bad roads, and that adds to the fun and adventure, since it tests my skill and helps me to do it better. Now, yes, I admit that if you have bad roads near where you live or going out of your homogeneous neighborhood, you could be the victim of redlining. Sometimes redlining is the result of people not complaining or bringing up a need. When people don’t complain about a lack of service, they may feel it is a waste of time and that they won’t be heard. Middle class people feel a little more entitled to services. They see themselves as taxpayers and demand what they are paying for. So if you don’t complain, don’t vote, don’t speak up, but shirk your civic privileges and responsibilities, you shouldn’t be expecting to be heard. If you speak up and are not heard, then the shame is theirs, but if you refuse to speak up or feel that does no good, then the shame is yours.

    * STRANDED — This is a risk that cyclist always have and is an inherent part of cycling. You should never go on a ride without facing this possibility and preparing for it. I am not sure why black cyclists would fear this. If you face it, you just get off of your bike and push it back home or at least to a place where you can buy or borrow (with permission) what you need. If you fear this, you might be lazy, lack confidence in your abilities and survival skills, or are living or passing through an unsafe place where you have no business being.

    * POLICE — In my town, white cyclists are much less likely to ride through a red light or blow a stop sign. They are raised to respect the law and to be vigilant of following it. And I admit that I have run such things, but I was always careful to not be seen. Right or wrong, some cops are overbearing jerks, so it is important to obey their instructions immediately. Do not run, talk s–t to them, act scared, withhold your ID, give a false name, assault them, or get belligerent about your “rights.” Just act as passive and compliant as possible as if you are perfectly okay with things. That is NOT “acting like a b–ch,” but respecting authority and being wise. If you have warrants on you, it is YOUR FAULT for not dealing with the underlying issues and committing whatever crime in the first place. So if you have warrants, accept the fact that you WILL go to jail and not compound the issue by lying, running, or showing the least bit of aggression. And make sure you explain EVERY move you make. “My glasses are sliding off my nose, and I am adjusting them…” “I am getting my ID out for you….” There are plenty of things you can do to prepare if you expect to encounter the cops. First, make sure you don’t have drugs on you, that you are not under the influence of drugs/drink, and that you don’t smell like drugs. If you smell like you’ve just smoked several joints and have a pound of weed on you, the cops WILL give you grief. So just don’t be stupid enough to have drugs on you or to even smell like drugs.

    Now, if you are being profiled and have done all of the above, then do what you can to fight for your rights and tell everyone who will listen. I looked at the story about the guy being tasered. Yes, he was a bit in the wrong and contributed to the problem, but it still did not give the cops an excuse to act as they had. Anyway, s–t happens, so be prepared for it. Get you some recording equipment. Do not mention you have it until you are booked or are allowed to leave and contact your attorney.

    VERBAL HARASSMENT — Yes, this happens, and it happens more if you are female, visibly deformed, body modded, transsexual, or LGBT. It is nothing to be afraid of unless it is accompanied by other action such as rock-throwing, physical assault, rape attempts, criminal threats, etc. If you know certain places are bad, avoid them, but also contact the authorities. For instance, convenience stores and “redneck garages” seem to be worse places to ride by, and particularly if you are female or presenting as such, a member of a sexual or gender minority group, ugly, autistic/delayed, a known sex offender, etc. One trick I use is to sing loud songs I make up to put up a wall and drown out the verbal bullies. Even listening to music and singing with recordings/CDs/MP3s will seem to help create feelings of distance and calm. I’ve done that before and it seemed like verbal bullies were less likely to bother me. I don’t know why. Maybe I just seemed more engaged and less of a target, or maybe bully types are really intimidated by creative people to the point of paralysis once it reaches a certain point. Remember the Bible story about chanting, beating drums, and breaking jars? So there is some sort of psychological benefit to loud noises. Sometimes I sing out my intentions, goals, or wishes, “I have the right to always be ignored, I have the right to always be ignored….” and shady pedestrians usually ignore it, though a few will laugh.

    PREGNANCY, CHILDREN — I am not sure I want to get into this. There is a difference in family structure at play, where white families are more likely to be married and have a male in the household. So the male can loosely watch the kids while the woman is out. And white female cyclists might be less likely to have or want kids (let alone sex). But if white folks with kids are riding bikes, then they are more likely to purchase the correct gear to use to transport kids safely while on a bicycle. So if you don’t want this hassle, then limit your unprotected sex and learn not to complicate your life and burden the system by having so many kids. Before you have sex, you need to think to the future and what you will miss out on or destroy. You should treat EVERY single episode of vaginal intercourse as if you will become pregnant. If you cannot afford pills and condoms, then you cannot afford unprotected sex either. Having sex is NOT an entitlement. If it is not practical for you and your specific situation that is specific to you, then don’t do it.

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