What Would It Take to Eliminate Carbon Emissions From U.S. Transportation?

The U.S. is behind other developed nations in moving toward energy efficient transportation. Graph: U.S. PIRG
America’s transportation system obscenely more carbon-intensive than global leaders in Asia and Europe. Graph: U.S. PIRG

To do its part to avert catastrophic climate change, the United States would have to more or less eliminate carbon emissions from transportation in the next 35 years. But America is nowhere near on pace to make that happen.

Transportation recently overtook the electric power sector to become the nation’s largest source of carbon emissions. That’s what you would expect out of a transportation policy framework that prioritizes cars, highways, and sprawl — and hasn’t changed very much in 60 years, despite some recent tinkering around the margins.

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group and the Frontier Group are out with a new report [PDF] outlining 50 steps to eliminate carbon pollution from the American transportation sector by incentivizing low-carbon modes of travel, more efficient development patterns, and cleaner vehicles. Here are three of the most important steps.

First step — get a grip on the damage being done

America is basically flying blind when it comes to charting a greener course for transportation emissions — we have no idea how all the money spent on transportation infrastructure affects the climate. Only in a handful of states do transportation agencies even consider how their very expensive highway projects lead to more greenhouse gas emissions.

The federal government is at least moving to require transportation agencies to measure their carbon impacts. This is a good first step in imposing some kind of accountability.

But measuring is just the first step, of course. Real change will happen only when the goal of reducing carbon emissions permeates every transportation policy decisions at the federal and state level.

Quit subsidizing highways and driving

As long as driving is subsidized to the tune of tens of billions of dollars a year, resource-intensive sprawl will have the upper hand over cleaner modes of travel and more efficient development patterns. We have a long way to go to get these incentives right.

U.S. PIRG reports that in 2014, $98 billion from sources like general fund revenues and sales taxes — which don’t come from drivers — were directed toward highway projects. So nearly a hundred billion dollars in annual subsidies for roads.

At the federal level, the authors recommend eliminating the ban on tolling existing interstate highway lanes, so drivers pay for the infrastructure they use.

They also recommend leveling the playing field for highway and transit projects. Currently, government spends about four times as much on highways as transit.

And they target the federal commuter tax benefit for parking, which amounts to a $7.3 billion annual subsidy for solo car commuting.

Major changes are needed at the state level as well. The constitutions of 23 states forbid spending state gas tax funds on anything other than highways. Many states provide practically no budget support for walking, biking, or transit. In 2014, 24 states spent less than 1 cent per capita per day on transit.

Most states do practically nothing to support public transit. Graph: U.S. PIRG
Most states do next to nothing to support transit. Chart: U.S. PIRG

Link transportation and development policies to create more walkable places

Public policies at every level of government favor the construction of car-centric suburban environments over the walkable, bikeable communities that can help reduce reliance on fossil fuels. This is not just a matter of transportation policy, but of land use and development incentives too.

To better align the built environment with sustainability goals, the authors recommend doing away with housing subsidies that tilt the market toward large-lot, single-family homes and discourage mixed-use development. State and local tax breaks that lead to job sprawl without actually creating jobs also need to go.

Coordinating transportation and development policies should be a core tenet at every level of government. Transportation projects should be selected based on how they affect land use, for instance, while housing and development subsidies should be targeted in transit-accessible areas. The classic American highway project enabling greenfield sprawl has to give way to a new standard of investment that prioritizes transit and walkability.

  • Vooch

    because road socialism has been tried for 90 years now in a thousands Permutations and fails every time.

  • Vooch

    because Germany isn’t corrupt.

  • Michel S

    The article focuses on the elimination of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation sources. Ten times as much carbon pollution is generated by automobiles than aviation. The miles traveled by each is irrelevant. It’s about impact. With our limited resources we should be fighting for reducing the biggest sources of pollution, and that means reducing dependency on automobiles for local trips.

  • Guy Ross

    A binary answer to accusations of being binary. Nice, Dude.

    The best way to ensure corruption is through privatization of public systems which are, by design and use, necessary monopolies. Case in point: the now privatized garbage collection services. It’s a cesspool.

  • Guy Ross

    And private automobiles account for 80% of road transportation so we should not consider trucks, and American brands account for 60% of that so we should disregard imports, and of those front wheel drive accounts for 72% so we should not consider all wheel drive…..

    Yes, the article focuses on how to eliminate carbon emissions from U.S. transportation. Why does it then make sense to not consider the U.S. transportation SYSTEM? To do so, we should consider the aspect of ‘efficiency’ and to to do that the most appropriate method is to show how much carbon is being produced by each person per distance traveled per mode.

    I would understand your perspective if there was some arbitrary construct forcing us to only focus on one aspect, but there isn’t. Shall we not worry about a nuclear reactor meltdown because the largest source of radioactivity is radon gas?

  • Michel S

    Now you’re splitting hairs. Trucks are a part of road transportation, yes, as are the four-wheelers, two-wheelers, American and non-American brands, etc. I’m not trying to differentiate between them. They are all automobiles and, in fact, the reliance on these modes of transportation IS THE SYSTEM we’re talking about.

    How many planes take-off and land in the US on a given day? A cursory internet search yields 23,000. How many cars, trucks, four-wheelers, two-wheelers, Hyundais and Chryslers drive on US roads in a given day? The total number of vehicles in the US is approximately 253 MILLION. If ten times the number of emissions are coming from 250 Million vehicles compared to 23,000 commercial aircraft, you want to focus your energy on the planes?

    And yes, I can recognize already that the ratio of carbon output for those relatively few planes vs the huge volume of automobiles is damning, but for a country as large as the US you’re not going to eliminate air travel. What we can do is is increase the efficiency of automobiles and eliminate local trips through sensible investment in local transit, upgraded rail corridors, and change our development model away from auto-oriented places and towards walkable, bikeable, and transit-serviceable patterns. It’s a solution that takes the entire system into account, but it doesn’t start by trying to eliminate air travel.

  • Vooch

    regulatory capture

    that s what the central planners never understand

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